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non-magnetic_materials

Non-magnetic materials

Stan Zurek, Non-magnetic materials, Encyclopedia Magnetica,
https://e-magnetica.pl/doku.php/non-magnetic_materials

Non-magnetic materials - in a common language, “non-magnetic” are those materials which do not exhibit strong magnetic response - they have low relative permeability μr, very close to unity, or susceptibility close to zero (similar to vacuum).1)

In engineering applications the permeability of such materials is typically assumed to be unity (same as vacuum), with negligible error.2) Diamagnets, paramagnets and antiferromagnets are utilised for their lack of magnetic response (non-magnetic). Antiferromagnets are used in some magnetic sensors such as spin valves for their magnetic properties.

Magnetic permeability of magnetic materials (ferromagnets $μ_{ferro}$) is much higher than those of non-magnetic materials (e.g. vacuum $μ_0 = μ_{vac}$, diamagnets $μ_{dia}$, paramagnets $μ_{para}$ and superconductors $μ_{sup}$)
Magnetic susceptibility χ expresses the proportionality between magnetisation M and magnetic field strength H: ferro - ferromagnets (and ferrimagnets), para - paramagnets, dia - diamagnets, vac - vacuum, sup - superconductors3)
Magnetic force on non-magnetic materials such as plastic and copper (without electric current) is typically negligible, electromagnetic coil with current can repel or attract the magnet (depending on the polarity of current), and the force on non-magnetic stainless steel (e.g. type 316) is negligibly small; magnetic materials react with strong forces bar_magnets_polarity_n_magnetica.jpg
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Chemical elements

Only three elements are ferromagnetic at room temperature: iron, cobalt, and nickel. Further six are ferromagnetic at lower and very low temperatures: gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, and thulium.

The rest exhibit either diamagnetic or paramagnetic properties (antiferromagnets are macroscopically indistinguishable from paramagnets).

It is also possible for a combination of non-magnetic elements to exhibit magnetic behaviour, as it is the case for example for Heusler alloys, for example Cu2MnSn, Cu2MnAl, or Pd2MnAl.4) However, these materials are not used in industrial applications.

Periodic table of elements, with magnetic properties5) (at very low temperatures, and also high pressure, many elements become superconducting and hence strongly diamagnetic)
Molar magnetic susceptibility of chemical elements at room temperature6)
Periodic table of chemical elements
1 H
hydro- gen
2 He
helium
3 Li
lithium
4 Be
beryll- ium
5 B
boron
6 C
carbon
7 N
nitro- gen
8 O
oxygen
9 F
fluor- ine
10 N
neon
11 Na
sodium
12 Mg
magne- sium
13 Al
alumi- nium
14 S
silicon
15 P
phos- phorus
16 S
sul- phur
17 Cl
chlo- rine
18 Ar
argon
19 K
pota- ssium
20 Ca
calc- ium
21 Sc
scan- dium
22 Ti
tita- nium
23 V
vanad- ium
24 Cr
chrom- ium
25 Mn
manga- nese
26 Fe
iron
27 Co
cobalt
28 Ni
nickel
29 Cu
copper
30 Zn
zinc
31 Ga
gallium
32 Ge
germa- nium
33 As
arsenic
34 Se
selen- ium
35 Br
bromine
36 Kr
krypton
37 Rb
rubid- ium
38 Sr
stron- tium
39 Y
yttrium
40 Zr
zirco- nium
41 Nb
niob- ium
42 Mo
molyb- denum
43 Tc
tech- netium
44 Ru
ruth- enium
45 Rh
rhod- ium
46 Pd
palla- dium
47 Ag
silver
48 Cd
cad- mium
49 In
indium
50 Sn
tin
51 Sb
anti- mony
52 Te
tell- urium
53 I
iodine
54 Xe
xenon
55 Cs
caes- ium
56 Ba
barium
* 72 Hf
haf- nium
73 Ta
tanta- lum
74 W
tung- sten
75 Re
rhen- ium
76 Os
osmium
77 Ir
iridium
78 Pt
plat- inum
79 Au
gold
80 Hg
mer- cury
81 Tl
thall- ium
82 Pb
lead
83 Bi
bis- muth
84 Po
polon- ium
85 At
asta- tine
86 Rn
radon
87 Fr
fran- cium
88 Ra
radium
104Rf
ruther- fordium
105Db
dub- nium
106Sg
seabo- rgium
107Bh
bohrium
108Hs
hassium
109Mt
meit- nerium
110Ds
darmst- adtium
111Rg
roent- genium
112Cn
coper- nicium
113Nh
nih- onium
114Fl
fler- ovium
115Mc
mos- covium
116Lv
liver- morium
117Ts
tenne- ssine
118Og
ogan- esson
lanthanides
* 57 La
lanth- anum
58 Ce
cerium
59 Pr
praseo- dymium
60 Nd
neo- dymium
61 Pm
prome- thium
62 Sm
samar- ium
63 Eu
europ- ium
64 Gd
gadol- inium
65 Tb
terb- ium
66 Dy
dyspr- osium
67 Ho
holm- ium
68 Er
erbium
69 Tm
thul- ium
70 Yb
ytter- bium
71 Lu
lute- tium
actinides
89 Ac
actin- ium
90 Tr
thor- ium
91 Pa
protac- tinium
92 U
uran- ium
93 N
neptu- nium
94 P
pluton- ium
95 Am
ameri- cium
96Cm
curium
97 Bk
berke- lium
98 Cf
cali- fornium
99 Es
einst- einium
100Fm
ferm- ium
101Md
mende- levium
102No
nobel- ium
103Lr
lawre- ncium


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See also

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non-magnetic_materials.txt · Last modified: 2023/09/04 14:11 by stan_zurek

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