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History of electromagnetism

Stan Zurek, History of electromagnetism, Encyclopedia Magnetica,

History of electromagnetism - this page is a collection of important discoveries in the history of electromagnetism, ranging from electrostatics, through magnetostatics, to electromagnetics, waves and optic.

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Ancient times

around 2500 BC - Some documents indicate that compass was used in ancient China1)2)
around 500 BC - Magnetic attraction between lodestone and iron studied by Thales of Miletus3)

Before 18th century

1064 - Discovery that iron quenched from red hot acquires magnetization by Zheng Gongliang (China)4)
1088 - Navigational compass invented by Shen Kua (China)5)
1190 - Compass construction described by Alexander Neckam (England)6)
1269 - Polarity of magnetic poles described by Pierre de Maricourt (also known as Peter Peregrinus)7)
1600 - Movement of compass needle and Eearth's magnetic field described by William Gilbert8) who also proposed the word “electric9), see also: gilbert

18th century

1743 - Horseshoe magnet invented by Daniel Bernoulli (Switzerland)10)
1745 - Method of reliable magnetisation of steel developed by Gowin Knight (England)11)
1745 - Leyden jar (first capacitor) invented by Pieter van Musschenbroek and Ewald von Kleist12)
1747 - Existence of positive and negative electric charges proposed by Benjamin Franklin13)
1750 - Inverse-square law governing forces between poles discovered by John Michell (England)14)
1785 - Coulomb's law of electrostatic forces formulated by Charles-Augustine de Coulomb (France)15)
1786 - Twitching of frog's leg by electricity studied by Luigi Galvani (Italy)16), see also: galvanic
1800 - Electric battery invented by Alessandro Volta (Italy)17), see also: volt

19th century

1820 - Magnetic field around a wire with electric current discovered by Hans Christian Ørsted18), see also: oersted
1820 - Magnetic force between two wires with current demonstrated by André-Marie Ampère19), see Ampere's law and ampere
1820 - Magnetic force due to current calculated by Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart20), see Biot-Savart law
1821 - Principle of electric motor discovered by Michael Faraday21), see also: farad
1824 - Iron-cored electromagnet invented by William Sturgeon22)
1825 - Compass needle rotating above spinning copper disc demonstrated by Francois Arago23)
1826 - Galvanometer invented by Johann Christian Poggendorff24)
1827 - Ohm's law proposed by Georg Ohm25)
1830 - powerful practical electromagnet (lifting over 900 kg) created by Joseph Henry26), see also: henry
1831 - Electromagnetic induction and transformer discovered by Micheal Faraday27), see Faraday's law
1831 - practical DC motor invented by Joseph Henry28)
1834 - Lenz's law formulated by Emil Lenz29)
1834 - Horizontal motor invented by Moritz von Jacobi30)
1842 - Magnetostriction discovered by James Joule31), see also: joule
1845 - The name “magnetic field” introduced by Michael Faraday32)
1869 - Periodic table of elements created by Dimitri Mendeleev33)
1873 - All equations of electromagnetism first summarised by James Clerk Maxwell34), see Maxwell's equations
1879 - Hall effect for negative charges discovered by Edwin Herbert Hall35)
1881 - The name “hysteresis” is proposed (and the phenomenon studied in iron) by James Ewing36)
1882 - Vector notation and analysis proposed by Oliver Heaviside and Josiah Willard Gibbs37)
1885 - Maxwell's equations rationalised to just four by Oliver Heaviside38)
1886 - first DC current motor invented by Frank Julian Sprague39)
1887 - Magnetic potentiometer described by A.P. Chattock40)
1890 - Right-hand and left-hand rules proposed by John Ambrose Fleming41)
1892 - Theory of the electron published by Hendrik Lorentz42)
1894 - The word “electron” proposed by G.J. Stoney43)
1895 - X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen44)
1896 - Radioactivity discovered by Henri Becquerel45)
1896 - Rotational loss measured by Francis Gibson Baily46)
1897 - Electron discovered by Joseph John Thomson47)
1900 - Magnetic domains (initially called “molecular groups”) proposed by James Ewing48)

20th century

1905 - Thermionic valve (first diode) patented by John Ambrose Fleming49)
1905 - Photon and photoelectric effect described by Albert Einstein50)
1906 - Theory of ferromagnetism proposed by Pierre Weiss51)
1909 - Charge and mass of electron measured by Robert A. Millikan and Harvey Fletcher52)
1911 - Atomic nucleus discovered by Ernest Rutherford53)
1911 - Superconductivity in mercury discovered by Kamerlingh Onnes54)
1911 - Proton discovered by Ernest Rutherford55)
1916 - Rogowski coil patented by Walter Rogowski56)
1919 - Barkhausen noise discovered by Heinrich Barkhausen57)
1925 - Electron spin discovered by George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit58)
1931 - Existence of magnetic monopoles proposed by Paul Dirac59)
1932 - Neutron discovered by James Chadwick60)
1934 - Method for producing grain-oriented electrical steel patented by Norman P. Goss61)
1935 - Principles of domain theory established by Lev Landau and Evgenii Lifschitz62)
1936 - Powder material Sendust invented by Hakaru Masumoto63)
1955 - Needle probes (for measuring flux density) patented by Ernst Czeija and Robert Zawischa64)
1967 - Ferromagnetic amorphous alloy demonstrated by Pol Dowez and S.C.H. Lin of California Institute of Technology65)
1980 - Quantum Hall effect discovered by Klaus von Klitzing66)
1984 - Neodymium magnets invented independently by M. Sagawa, S. Fujimura, N. Togawa, H. Yamamoto, Y. Matsura of Sumitomo Special Metals Company, and J. J. Croat, J. F. Herbst, R. W. Lee, F. E. Pinkerton of General Motors Research Laboratories67)
1988 - Nanocrystalline material invented by Yoshihito Yoshizawa, Shigeru Oguma, and Kiyotaka Yamauchi of Hitachi Metals68)


history_of_electromagnetism.txt · Last modified: 2021/06/06 16:15 by stan_zurek

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